Consortium Partners

Project Coordinator


Swedish Defence Research Agency


The Swedish Defence Research Agency, FOI, is an authority under the Ministry of Defence that is primarily financed through contracts. FOI was formed in 2001 by the merging of the FOA (the National Defence Research Establishment) and the FFA (the Aeronautical Test Establishment), both Swedish Government authorities founded in 1945. FOI is the largest research institute in Sweden with about 900 employees, of whom about 770 are researchers with academic degrees, including about 350 with Ph.D.’s. FOI’s core business is research, development of methods and technologies, studies for the Swedish defence and, in the security arena, for civil governmental agencies. FOI’s customers include Swedish and European defence companies as well as foreign defence and security governmental organisations.

The Division of Weapons, Protection and Security with its department EM-weapons and Security of Explosives will coordinate the project work and participate in the actions together with the department for Explosives and Ammunition Safety. The divisions competences spans from studies on thermal decomposition over synthesis, chemical analysis, explosives detection, characterisation, to formulation, production and risk assessment. The department has extensive experience of lasers, spectrometric methods, optics and has adequate laboratory and other experimental facilities, including labs for chemical synthesis and analysis as well as out and indoors test facilities.


Project Partners



The Fraunhofer ICT is one of the 60 institutes of Fraunhofer Gesellschaft, the leading applied research organisation in Europe. Fraunhofer ICT, a research partner of the German Defence Ministry, the German Research Ministry and industry, has 60 years of experience in the entire field of explosive technology. This includes new explosive substances, gun and rocket propellants, blasting materials, gas generators.

Security-based research is a core competence of the Fraunhofer ICT. Within the business area for defence and security, the Fraunhofer ICT carries out research into sensor concepts for the detection of explosives and the characterisation of homemade explosives concerning their stability, sensitivity to different influences, initiation and performance. Around 550 people are currently employed at the Fraunhofer ICT. The turnover in 2018 was around 40 million Euros.




The Center for Security Studies (KEMEA) is a think tank on homeland security policies and an established research center since 2005 (L. 3387/2005) within the Hellenic Ministry of Citizen Protection (former Ministry of Public Order and Citizen Protection), aiming to support security policy implementations in Greece, at a strategic level. Specifically, the activities KEMEA is involved in include a). the certification of practitioners in private security professions at the national level, b). research and development in the context of National and European projects in close cooperation with LEAs, working under the auspices of the Ministry of Citizen Protection and c). training of practitioners in new systems and technologies. The Center also provides advisory and consulting services to the Ministry of Citizen Protection, as well as other Public and Private authorities, on safety and security issues. A main objective of KEMEA is to bring together all national Law Enforcement Agencies (Police, Fire Service, Coast Guard, Civil Protection agency, etc.) and to enable them to collaborate, interconnecting them with corresponding agencies, research institutions and the industry from around Europe. This dedicated approach to exploring synergies, establishing communication links and working together to produce end-user driven research on all fronts of the Security Sector during the last decade, has earned KEMEA its participation in numerous National and EC R&D projects.

KEMEA is a member of several European associations and organisations and it represented the Greek Government as a member of the “European Security Research and Innovation Forum (ESRIF)”. Amongst other associations and organisations, KEMEA is a member of the “Public Safety Communication Europe Forum (PSCE)”, the “European Association of Research and Technology Organizations (EARTO)” and has established links to the ENLETS community (European Network of Law Enforcement Technology Services). Furthermore, KEMEA is appointed as the Greek “National Contact Point” for the implementation of Directive 2008/114/EC, regarding the protection of European Critical Infrastructures. KEMEA currently employs 98 highly qualified and experienced researchers and Security experts, including 25 active LEA officers. These researchers and experts are specialised in various topics such as: Border Management and Surveillance, Smart Borders, Crisis Management, Emergency Response, GIS, Hazardous Materials, Information Security, Cyber Security, Information Systems, Telecommunications, Ad Hoc Networks, Civil Protection, Operational Readiness Exercises, Statistics, International Relations, Transportation Security and European Policy, etc. Furthermore, regarding its capacity and under its constitutional law, KEMEA, if needed, can additionally utilise personnel and assets of the Greek Ministry of Public Order and Citizen Protection, in order to fulfil specific tasks of various projects; this equates to a staff pool of over 70,000 people being readily available.

Since 2016, the Center for Security Studies (KEMEA) is a Framework Partner of CEPOL for the coordination and implementation of training activities and learning products. The partnership falls under the following area: “Creating learning opportunities for law enforcement personnel in the prevention of and the fight against serious and organised crime, terrorism, maintenance of public order, international policing of major events, planning and command of Union missions, as well as training on law enforcement leadership and language skills, while putting particular emphasis on the protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the context of law enforcement”.




TNO (Nederlandse Organisatie voor toegepast-natuurwetenschappelijk Onderzoek / Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, TNO) is an independent research organisation with 3 400 professionals. TNO connects people and knowledge to create innovations that boost the competitive strength of industry and the well-being of society in a sustainable way. We focus on transitions or changes in nine social themes:

• Buildings, Infrastructure & Maritime : ‘Robust constructions, sustainable use’
• The Circular Economy and the Environment: ‘Directing and accelerating sustainability’
• Defence, Safety and Security: ‘We’re putting our knowledge and technology to work for safety and security’
• Energy: ‘Faster towards a sustainable energy supply’
• Healthy living: ‘Focussing on participation, not on the disease’
• Industry: ‘Innovating for employment, welfare and well-being’
• Information & Communication Technology: ‘Interpreting and accelerating digital transformation’
• Strategic Analysis & Policy: ‘Turning complex issues into concrete innovations’
• Traffic and Transport: ‘Helping to create liveable, sustainable cities’

In the theme of Defence, Safety and Security applied research is carried out for both National Security as well as protecting military personnel for our Ministry of Defence. TNO enables and uses technological innovations and innovations in understanding and influencing human behaviour in support of military and law enforcement agencies to perform smarter, more efficient and better protected, enhancing the security of our society. TNO is involved in research and consultancy projects in all phases of the terrorist time line, from prevention to react. Within the light of this proposal, the main focus will be on threat identification and the evaluation of new HMEs in order to prevent an attack.




The General Karol Kaczkowski Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology is an independent, public, non-profit research organisation in Poland whose mission is to conduct research, prophylaxis, surveillance and training associated with medical protection and countermeasures against the use of weapons of mass destruction. In this regard, the Institute cooperates closely with the National Security Office, the National Sanitary Inspectorate, as well as non-governmental organisations. The founding and executive authority is the Ministry of National Defence.




The Spanish National Police Force (Policía Nacional-ESPN) is a police force (LEA) born in 1824, since their origin have been growing as police force up to the present day. Currently is a more than 70.000 police officers Law Enforcement Agency with competences in all Spanish territory. One of the PN strategic lines in home security is to achieve a police force more dynamic, more efficient and more intelligent using new technologies and new working methods to be more effective. According to the Organic Law 2/86, depending on the Spanish Minister of Interior, the PN statutory tasks, among others, are: “Capture, receive and analyse the data of interest in order to ensure the public security, and study, plan and execute all the techniques and methods to prevent the crime ”.

In order to carry out this mandate, the Spanish National Police is in charge of:

– Aid and protect persons and goods.
– Maintain and restore the public order and citizen security.
– Investigate crimes, arresting the culprits and bringing perpetrators to justice.
– Collect and analyse interest data in order to maintain the public security.
– Issue and control the national identity cards and passports.
– Enforce the legislation on foreigners.
– Collaborate and aid to other countries’ LEA.
– Control over private security.




The Hellenic Police assumed its present structure in 1984 when the Gendarmerie and the Urban Police Forces were merged (Law 1481/1-10-1984, Government Gazette 152 A). Hellenic Police is a Law Enforcement Agency according to the Law nr. 2800/2000 and its mission is to:

• ensure peace and order as well as citizens` unhindered social development, a mission that includes general policing duties and traffic safety;
• prevent and interdict crime as well as to protect the State and the democratic form of government within the framework of constitutional order, a mission that also includes the implementation of public and state security policy.

Hellenic Police is comprised of both central and regional Services. Hellenic Police`s headquarters is the supreme authority over these Services. Its efforts centre on the fulfilment of the Force`s mission, within the framework of the Ministry of Citizen`s Protection policy.




The police is a public service of the Ministry of the Interior of the Republic of Croatia that performs certain tasks prescribed by law, the so-called police affairs. The Police Directorate is established for the performance of police affairs in the Ministry of the Interior, as an administrative organisation within the Ministry, while police administrations operate at the local level.

Additionally, in Croatian Police education is based on the LLL-principles and embraces as follows: Primary police education and training, Specialization, professional development and vocational training and Higher education. The Police Academy is responsible for police education and can cooperate with other universities, foreign law enforcement organisations, national authorities, and institutions. Since 2005 Bologna process has been introduced within higher police education in Croatia it is possible to study undergraduate study (3 years, 180 ECTS, bachelor’s degree) – full time and part-time students and specialist graduate studies (2 years, 120 ECTS, master’s degree – Specialist in Criminal Investigation (spec.) – part-time students.

The Bomb Disposal Service in Republic of Croatia is situated in General Police Directorate of the Ministry of Interior. One of the Bomb Disposal Service tasks is to coordinate the Bomb Disposal Units in 20 Police Administrations. The Croatian Bomb Disposal Service main tasks are:

• Improvised explosive devices
• Disposal,
• Explosive ordnance disposal,
• Bomb scene investigations,
• Bomb threats handling,
• Bomb search operations

The knowledge is used to countermeasure terrorist acts which is fed by the large number of illegal weapons and all kinds of military explosive ordnance after the War (1990 – 1995) (hand grenades, mines, canon shells, grenades, mortars, aircraft bombs, military explosives, ammunition and other explosive remnants of war – ERW). MUP also countermeasure the use of IEDs usually used by individual criminals and organized crime groups. They use explosive devices to protect their property or to intimidate, injure or kill opponents and competitors (mostly Under Vehicle IEDs). Because of the great number of Explosive Remnants of War, the IEDs mostly consists of military high explosives (TNT, PETN, RDX) and other parts of military devices.




The Netherlands Forensic Institute (NFI) is one of the world’s leading forensic laboratories. From its state-of-the-art, purpose-built premises in The Hague, the NFI provides products and services to a wide range of national and international clients. Over 30 disciplines are housed in the NFI among which the expertise area of explosives and explosions. The E&E team investigates items of evidence of more than 150 police cases every year. Chemical analysis of the explosive charge, both pre and post explosion, is one of its core tasks. All relevant analysis techniques are operated in-house. The analysis results are used both by police in the investigative phase (finding suspects) and in court during the prosecution phase (linking a suspect to a crime). In addition, the E&E team provides assistance to the police at the crime scene of major incidents, e.g. by performing Raman analysis on scene, advising on sampling and IED reconstruction, and assessing the endangerment level of the explosion.

Also, various R&D projects are coordinated and executed by the E&E team in order to:

• improve the evidential value of items of evidence up till the level of activity hypotheses;
• expand the general (forensic) knowledge on chemical profiling of explosives;
• validate new analysis techniques for explosives.

In previous R&D projects, NFI has developed new forensic methods for chemical profiling of some home-made explosives and their precursors in cooperation with UvA and TNO. Therefore, the required expertise and equipment for WP5 is already present at NFI.




Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI) is a Law Enforcement Agency (LEA) within the United Kingdom and has responsibility for the delivery of policing in Northern Ireland.

The PSNI was established in 2001 as part of the recommendations of the Good Friday Agreement and is the successor to Royal Ulster Constabulary GC. PSNI headquarters is based in Belfast, with 6730 police officers and 2090 support staff. For the Police Service of Northern Ireland, keeping people safe is what we do; Policing with the Community is how we do it. Policing with the Community is about understanding and responding to the human impact of policing. It is about creating real participation between the police and the community – a partnership in which policing reflects and responds to the community’s needs.

The central role of the PSNI is to help build a safe, confident and peaceful Northern Ireland. Working in partnership, policing prevents crime, detects offenders and protects the most vulnerable in society. We are committed to enhancing community safety and building public confidence in policing. The operational functions of the PSNI are delivered through 11 District Policing Commands. Crime Operations branch which delivers on Special Operations, Reactive and Organised Crime, Serious Crime investigations and Intelligence management. Operational Support branch which has responsibility for Tactical Support , Armed Response, Close Protection and Roads Policing teams. These functions are supported by, Corporate Communications, Corporate Governance, Discipline and Anti-Corruption ,Finance, Human Resources, Legal Services and Legacy and Justice.

The PSNI has expertise in a wide range of LEA activities and is recognised as a global leader in the delivery of:

• Cyber Crime investigation and Online Safety
• Policing with the Community
• Public order and crowd management
• Counter terrorism investigation
• Intelligence management
• Emergency planning and disaster management
• Human Rights focused policing

The PSNI is one of the most scrutinised Law Enforcement Agencies in the world, operating within a robust accountability framework that ensures policing delivery of the high standard.

The PSNI strives to be at the forefront of research and innovation regarding policing and security, ensuring as an organisation we are continually learning, adapting and improving. One of the many ways in which the PSNI achieves this objective is the organisations participation and delivery of various European funded research and development projects under Horizon 2020, at present, PSNI is involved in seventeen projects. The PSNI has just finished as the coordinator of the completed H2020 TENSOR
project. The subject matter of these projects is wide-ranging and varied. Subject areas covered include:

• Online Terrorist Activity Recognition
• Use of Social Media in Natural Disasters and Emergency Situations
• Home Made Explosives (HME’s) & Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs)
• Border Surveillance against crime and terrorism
• CBRNe Threats, including response and investigation




Founded in 1912, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology is Israel’s first university and its largest center of applied research. Technion is ranked among the leading technological universities worldwide. Amajor source of the innovation and brainpower that drives the Israeli economy, Technion is the engine behind Israel’s renown as the iconic “Startup Nation.” Technion people, ideas, and inventions have made, and continue to make tremendous scientific contributions in fields such as medicine, sustainable energy, computer science, water conservation, and nanotechnology. It is one of a handful of technological institutes worldwide with a medical school, facilitating the rapid development of advanced therapies and devices, from the laboratory to the patient’s bedside.

Technion’s success is attributed to its unwavering commitment to excellence in education and research. The University is proud of its four Nobel laureates – Aaron Ciechanover, Avram Hershko, Dan Shechtman, and Arieh Warshel. Technion currently ties with MIT in 8th place for the number of Nobel prizewinners this century.

Technion offers degrees in all fields of science and engineering, architecture and town planning, medicine, industrial management, education, and environmental studies. It houses 18 faculties, 60 research centers and institutes, and 10 interdisciplinary research frameworks. There are 14,500 students(10,000 undergraduate and 4,500 graduate) and 550 faculty members. Since 1929, 110,000 degrees have been conferred. Technion City’s 300-acre campus sits atop Mount Carmel and encompasses 108 main buildings, with additional campuses located in Haifa and Tel Aviv.

Since Albert Einstein founded the first Technion Society in Germany in 1923, Technion’s worldwide network of friends has expanded worldwide to encompass 21 countries. Technion International, home to the university’s global academic community, offers dedicated degree programs in English to international students. The university has academic agreements with more than 200 universities and research authorities around the globe.

In 2011, Technion and Cornell University partnered to establish an applied science and engineering institution in New York City: The Joan and Irwin Jacobs Technion Cornell Institute (JTCI). In 2013, Technion joined with Shantou University to establish the Guangdong Technion-Israel Institute of Technology (GTIT) in China.

The Technion Research and Development Foundation (TRDF) manages university research programs and performs testing and research services for industry and government. T3, the technology transfer arm of TRDF, takes the university’s game-breaking scientific ideas and matches them with investors and entrepreneurs, licensing intellectual property and supporting the establishment of startup.




The University of Amsterdam (UvA) is the Netherlands’ largest university, offering a wide range of academic programmes. At the UvA, 30,000 students, 6,000 staff members and 3,000 PhD candidates study and work in a diverse range of scientific fields. The Faculty of Science (FNWI) located at Amsterdam Science Park offers education and conducts research in mathematics, physics, chemistry, astronomy, biology, logic and computer science. Within this spectrum the van ‘t Hoff Institute for Molecular Sciences (HIMS) performs internationally recognised chemistry research. This is done in close cooperation with the chemical, flavour & food, medical and high-tech industries. Research is organised into four themes: Sustainable Chemistry, Molecular Photonics, Computational Chemistry and Analytical Chemistry. The Analytical Chemistry laboratory specialises in the development of techniques
and methods for the analysis of complex mixtures and matrices, specifically with respect to macromolecules and biomedical and forensic applications. The technical focus is on one- and twodimensional separation methods, on hyphenation with detection and sample-preparation systems, on mass spectrometric analysis and on chemometric techniques for data processing, analysis and interpretation. The laboratory is the only academic institution in the Netherlands to study forensic analytical chemistry with two full chairs with a strong forensic component. Within these chairs extensive research has been conducted in the field of forensic explosives analysis and the chemical profiling of energetic materials.




E&Q is a private small company based in Spain, since its launch in 2003 fully specialised in providing solutions to the Spanish Ministry of Defence and Security Corps of the Ministry of Interior, NATO and EDA. All along this last decade E&Q has positioned itself as a strong and reliable subject matter expert in several domains like Modeling and Simulation, Counter IED issues (inlcuding HMEs and precursors), Unmanned systems and Non-Lethal Weapons, developing and providing products for and giving support as part of National Representation in several multinational working groups. E&Q builds up new products based on new techniques and innovative key enabler technologies, as demonstrated by R&T international and national contracts. Particularly regarding to explosives and countering IEDs, E&Q was a National reference from 2007 to 2012 participating in all the relevant R&T requirements definition and planning process, different types of testing from planning to execution and assessment, involvement in technology and operational working groups, as well as web portal provider and content manager for C-IED issues and C-IED technology watch in the Spanish MoD.

Regarding appicable capabilities to Inherit, E&Q provided knowledge and assessment to different joint working groups in Spain and NATO about threat networks, counter IED systems performances, their effects and risks involved and potential mission accomplishment (inlcuding new systems). E&Q has also performed different capability gap analysis to national and multinational stakeholders (SP MoD, EDA, NATO) and design and applied systematic evaluation frameworks oriented to prepare the Forces and build up the most suitable tactics, techniques and procedures for Counter threats like IEDs at different stages of the timeline. Its knolwedge about the threat networks will support the elaboration of the threat mapping upon which all developed countermeasures will be oriented.




Esbit Compagnie GmbH is a family owned company, run by the 3rd generation and offers hexamethylenetetramine-based (short form “hexamine”) solid fuel tablets since its foundation in 1949.

Esbit® solid fuel tablets and its corresponding stove systems are being used by NATO forces, aid organisations and a large number of civil outdoor & sports enthusiasts (e.g. hikers, campers, climbers, boy scouts). They serve to warm up food and beverages in the field, in emergency situations and during sports and leisure activities outdoors.

In the civil sector Esbit solid fuel tablets are listed with leading Outdoor and Sports retailers in Europe and overseas.

Besides solid fuel tablets and stoves Esbit Compagnie offers the following additional products under Esbit brand to its international clientele : Vacuum flasks, food jugs, thermo mugs, charcoal grills, alcohol cook sets, cookware and cutlery.

Another business field of the company is the toy sector – for example traditional toys like Wilesco® steam engines ( are run by Esbit® solid fuel tablets.

Accounting, Logistics incl. warehousing, IT-Services, Packaging design etc. are provided by external service companies.

Esbit® solid fuel tablets are Made in Germany. The manufactuer is “Gummi Nolller GmbH, Ysostr. 2, 27283 Verden / Aller, Germany”. Esbit Compagnie holds worldwide exclusive distribution rights.
Distribution takes place through independent distributors to currently 25 countries in Europe, USA & Asia.

Solid fuel is the absolute identity of Esbit brand and Esbit Compagnie. Solid fuel has always been and is the key to enter into retailers’ assortment.

A relevant percentage of Esbit Compagnie turnover in the civil sector is generated by solid fuel and products operated by solid fuel.

Esbit Compagnie is aware of the threat that Hexamethylenetetramine can be misused to make homemade explosives and is following the work of the SCP (Standing Committee of Experts on Precursors) for
many years as active member.